History Of Biotechnology

Historical Development of Biotechnology began in the use of microorganisms to produce useful products for humans. Since 6000 BC the Babylonians Sedah Samaria and drinking beer, meaning that it has found the process of alcohol production by fermentation. The Egyptians have been making bread since 4000 BC, making some other food both in Europe and in Asia such as cheese, yogurt, soy sauce, tempeh, food coloring and the making of the tape are some examples of the use of microorganisms that have been around a long time..treatment of mesothelioma

According Suwanto (1998) biotechnology for the first time put forward by Karl Ereky, a Hungarian engineer in 1917 to describe the large-scale hog production using sugar beet as a source of feed. Biotechnology comes from two words, namely bio meaning living things and that means the way the technology to produce goods or services. Blend of two words from the European Federation of Biotechnology (1989) defines biotechnology as a blend of natural sciences and engineering sciences that aims to improve the application of living organisms, cells, parts of living organisms, and molecular analogues for products and services.

Almost all antibiotics derived from microbes, as well as the enzymes used to make fructose syrup to wash clothes. In agriculture, microbial nitrogen enhancer has been used since the abab to 19. beverly hills liposuction, Microbial phosphate solvent has been used for agriculture in the countries of Eastern Europe since the 1950's. Microbes have also been used extensively to clean up and decompose waste and sewage for decades. In the medical field, certain vaccines made from viruses or bacteria that have been weakened. Biotechnology has a gradient of technological development, starting from the application of traditional biotechnology has been long and widely used, until the new biotechnology techniques and are constantly evolving.

Utilization of microbes to human interests has existed since the days of BC. Until now man has experienced, Three periods of development of biotechnology, namely the following:
a. Traditional biotechnology period (before the 15th century AD)
    In this period there have been technological drink beer and wine making using yeast (6000 BC), 
   developed  a bread with yeast (4000 BC), and utilization of algae as a food source carried by the Aztecs 
   (1500 BC).
b. Scientific biotechnology period (the 15th century up to the M-20)
    This period was marked by several events of the following :
  1. Year 1670 : Copper ore mining business with the help of microbes in Rio Tinto, Spain.
  2. Year 1686 : The discovery by Antony van Leeuwenhoek mikrosop who also became the first man who can see microbes.
  3. In 1870 : Louis Pasteur discovered microbial presence in foods and beverages.
  4. Year 1890 : alcohol can be used as motor fuel.
  5. In 1897 : the discovery of the enzyme from yeast extract that can convert sugar into alcohol by Eduard Buchner.
  6. Year 1912 : pengelolahan waste by using microbial.
  7. In 1915 : the production of acetone, butanol, and glycerol by using bacteria.
  8. Year 1928 : antibiotic discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming
  9. In 1994 : large-scale production of penicillin
  10. Tahun.1953 : the discovery of nucleic acid structure deoksiribo (ADN) by Crick and Watson. .
c. Period of modern biotechnology (the 20th century AD to the present)
This period begins with the discovery of genetic engineering techniques in the 1970s. The role of technology in the era of genetic engineering is increasingly felt by the permissibility of the use of genetically engineered insulin trial results for diabetes treatment in the United States in 1982.
According to Jones (2003) application of biotechnology to agriculture in addition to offering various benefits also have the potential risk of loss. Potential benefits of agricultural biotechnology, among others, in the form of the potential of higher yields, reduced use of fertilizers and pesticides, tolerant of environmental stress, utilization of marginal lands, identification and elimination of disease in food animals, food quality and better nutrition, micronutrient deficiencies and improvements .

According to Conko (2003), The potential risks of biotechnology to agriculture and the environment, among others, the effect of turning on non-target organisms, the formation of resistant pests, and the transfer of unwanted genes, including gene transfer to wild type plants, transfer of genes coding genes for the production of toxic, and antibiotic-resistant gene transfer through antibiotic marker genes.